Human Adipose Tissue: Purinergic Receptor Involvement

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Khalfa Hydar Muhsin
M L Haider Al-Msaid

Abstract

Adipose tissue is derived from the pluripotent mesenchymal cells and further on from cells of the reticular connective tissue, which can produce lobes of fatty tissues like grapes. The reticulum cells store fat droplets that will finally conjoin to one large drop. In the process, the cells become rounder. Extrinsic signaling mechanisms control the cell fate and determination of progenitor cells. Extrinsic signals such as neurotransmitters and neurotrophins have a significant impact on the production and fate or progenitor cells. In addition to intrinsic regulators, extrinsic signaling systems such as neurotransmitters, play a fundamental role in the control of cell proliferation. Purinergic receptors are actively seen at an early stage of development in the germal layer at the embryonic stage.
Aim: This project aims to investigate the presence of purinergic signaling on human adipose tissue. Examine the essential histology of the human adipose tissue through routine histology and scanning electron microscopy.
Materials and Methods: Human adipose tissues were obtained from routine autopsy at AL-Hilla mortuary. Hematoxyline and eosin staining were processed on microtome sectioned slides. Tissues were also examined using scanning electron microscopy SEM. Immunohistochemistry of purinergic receptors (P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4) was examined in human adipose tissue.
Results: Histological examination/n of adipose tissue shows mature adipocytes with the lateral location of the nucleus. Purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2y4 are seen on membranes of adipocytes. PCR product of digested adipose tissues also shows clear bands for all three purinergic receptors in human adipose tissue.
Conclusion: This study shows that mature adipocytes are an excellent source of pluripotent stem cells that are capable of proliferating and differentiating into other cell lineages through purinergic receptor activation using various purine pharmacology. Purinergic receptors are a good indicator of the presence of mesenchymal stem cells.

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Research Article