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Medicinal plants are used traditionally in the treatment of various kinds of diseases since time immemorial. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of roots and leaves of Elephantopus scaber. The ethyl alcohol extracts of roots and leaves were subjected to phytochemical analyses, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, coumarins, quinones and glycosides in most of the selected of roots and leaves. Roots and leaves were investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida Albican by well diffusion method by using a different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100)mg/mL. Roots extract showed promising antimicrobial activity against all test organisms. The root has the best activity against all test organisms compared with leaves extract. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the roots and leaf extracts were also determined against different test organisms. The MIC value of roots and leaves extract ranged from 100 mg/mL to 500 mg/mL. This study showed the extract which gave higher efficacy is roots extract where it was detected the bioactive compounds in this extract by GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis of the active samples confirmed the presence of compounds containing -OOH, -OH, -N, and –S groups, which are associated with bacterial inhibition in conventional antibiotics. The 10 major constituents obtained from samples suspected to contain antibacterial activity include Methanehydrazonic acid, N-[3-(methylthio)-1,-2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl]-,ethylester (8.87%); 2-Butenoic acid, 3-methyl-, methylester (0.60%); Ethanone,1-cyclopropyl-2-[3-pyridinyl]- (0.73%); 6-Octen-1-yn-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl- (1.11%); 1,5-Dimethyl-2-pyrrolecarbonitrile (0.61%).
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