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A total of 325 urine samples were collected from all ages and for both sexes from patients suffering from urinary tract infections in the period from (15 February to 15 May, 2017) from Al Hussein Hospital in Karbala , The number of samples that gave a positive result for laboratory culture was 227 samples (84.69%) .The isolates were then identified according to the physiological and biochemical tests , It was found that the number of samples that were Gram negative was (59.9%) and the Proteus spp. obtained were (31.61%) of the total negative bacteria isolates. Proteus mirabilis isolates obtained from all isolates of Proteus spp. were 38 isolates formed ratio (88.37%) ,These isolates were initially diagnosed by culture them into the MacConkey agar and blood agar followed by a number of morphological and biochemical tests. The isolates were finally diagnosed using the API 20E system. Proteus mirabilis isolates obtained from urine samples of female were 27 isolates (71.05%) and 11 isolates (28.9%) from urine samples of male. The isolates were tested for 12 different types of β-Lactam antibiotic to determine the most effective antibiotic toward these bacteria (Ampicillin, Piperacillin, Oxacillin, Cefazolin, Cephalothin , Cefoxitin , Ceftazidime , Ceftriaxone , Cefepime , Ertapenem , Imipenem and Aztreonam). The isolates of P. mirabilis showed a clear sensitivity to the Erytapenem , Imipenem , and Aztreonam , the sensitivity ratio was 97.3% , 100% and 100% respectively. The polymerase chain reaction technique was also used to detect CTX-M gene which represents one of the three most frequent gene (TEM, SHV, CTX-M) in this bacteria The results of polymerase chain reaction showed that (17) isolates formed (44.74%) carrying the bla CTX-M gene. This study came to achieve the following objectives:
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